The richness of this mosque’s blue-tiled mosaic designs and its perfectly proportioned Safavid-era architecture form a visually stunning monument to the imagination of Shah Abbas I and the ability of his architect.
Work started on the magnificent entrance portal in 1611, although it took four years to finish – look for mismatches in its apparent symmetry, intended to reflect the artist’s humility in the face of Allah. It was not until 1629, the last year of the reign of Shah Abbas, that the high dome, and therefore the mosque, was completed. Little has changed since.
Although each of the mosque’s parts is a masterpiece, it is the unity of the overall design that leaves a lasting impression. The original purpose of the much-photographed entrance portal had more to do with its location on the square than with the mosque’s spiritual aims. Its function was primarily ornamental, providing a counterpoint to the Qeysarieh Portal at the entrance to the Bazar-e Bozorg. The foundation stones are of white marble from Ardestan and the portal itself, some 30m tall, is decorated with magnificent moarraq kashi (mosaics featuring geometric designs, floral motifs and calligraphy) by the most skilled artists of the age. The splendid niches contain complex stalactite mouldings in a honeycomb pattern; each panel has its own intricate design.
Although the portal was built to face the square, the mosque is oriented towards Mecca and a short, angled corridor neatly connects the square and the inner courtyard , with its pool for ritual ablutions and four imposing iwans . The walls of the courtyard contain the most exquisite sunken porches, framed by haft rangi (painted tiles) of deep blue and yellow. Each iwan leads into a vaulted sanctuary. The east and west sanctuaries are covered with particularly fine floral motifs on a blue background.
The main sanctuary is entered via the south iwan . Find yourself a quiet corner in which to sit and contemplate the richness of the domed ceiling, with its golden rose pattern (the flower basket) surrounded by concentric circles of busy mosaics on a deep blue background. The interior ceiling is 36.3m high, but the exterior reaches up to 51m due to the double-layering used in construction. The hollow space in between is responsible for the loud echoes heard when you stamp your foot on the black paving stones under the centre of the dome. Although scientists have measured up to 49 echoes, only about 12 are audible to the human ear – more than enough for a speaker to be heard throughout the mosque. The marble mihrab and minbar (pulpit of a mosque) are also beautifully crafted.
The main sanctuary provides wonderful views back to the two turquoise minarets above the entrance portal. Each is encircled by projecting balconies and white geometric calligraphy in which the names of Mohammed and Ali are picked out over and over again.
To the east and west of the main sanctuary are the courtyards of two madraseh. Both provide good views of the main dome with its glorious profusion of turquoise-shaded tiles.
Source: Lonely Planet